Posts Tagged ‘Mathematician

18
Oct
09

Sir Horace Lamb

Lamb, Sir Horace

Lamb, Sir Horace

Birth: November 27, 1849, Stockport, England.  Death: December 4, 1934, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, now amalgamated with isle of Ely.  Mathematician who contributed to the field of mathematical physics.  In 1872 he was made a fellow and assistant tutor of Trinity college, Cambridge, and three years later he became professor of mathematics at Adelaide University, Australia.  He returned to England in 1885 to become professor of mathematics at Victoria University, Lancashire.  The recognized authority on hydrodynamics, he wrote the Mathematical Theory of the Motion of Fluids (1878) and Hydrodynamics (1895); the latter for many years was the standard work on hydrodynamics.  His many papers, principally on applied mathematics, detailed his researches on wave propagation, electrical induction, earthquake tremors, and the theory of tides and waves.

Lamb made valuable studies of airflow over aircraft surfaces for the Aeronautical Research Committee from 1921 to 1927.  He was made a fellow of the Royal society of London in 1884 and was knighted in 1931.  His other publications include Infinitesimal Calculus (1897); Dynamical Theory of Sound (1910); Statics: Including Hydrostatics and Elements of the Theory of Elasticity (1912); Dynamics (1914); and Higher Mechanics (1920).

Visual source:  gap-system

15
Apr
09

Niels Henrik Abel (2 of 3)

While waiting for the royal decree to be issued, in 1824 the published at his own expense his proof of the impossibility of solving algebraically the general equation of the fifth degree, which he hoped would bring him recognition.  He sent the pamphlet to Gauss, who dismissed it, failing to recognize that the famous problem had indeed been settled.

Abel spent the winter of 1825-26 with Norwegian friends in Berlin, where he met August Leopold Crelle, civil engineer and self-taught enthusiast of mathematics, who became his close friend and mentor.  With Abel’s warm encouragement, Crelle founded the Journal fűr die reine und angewandte Mathematik (“Journal for Pure and Applied Mathematics”), the first volume of which (1826) contains papers by Abel, including a more elaborate version of his work on the quintic equation.  Other papers dealt with equation theory, functional equations, integration in finite forms, and problems from theoretical mechanics.

Abel’s early mathematical training had been in the formal school typified by Euler.  In Berlin new directions in mathematics stimulated him to do further independent work.  Soon distracted socially, however, Abel travelled throughout Europe.

Arriving in Paris in the summer of 1826, he called on the foremost mathematicians and completed a memoir on transcendental functions.  In this major work he presented a theory of integrals of algebraic functions, in particular the result know as Abel’s theorem: there is a finite number, or genus, of independent integrals of this nature. 




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