Posts Tagged ‘General

06
Dec
09

Christophe-Louis-Leon Juchault de Lamoriciere ~ France General and Administrator

Prominent Role in the Creation of the Arab Bureau

He was born on February 5, 1806 in Nantes, France and died on September 11, 1865 in Prouzel, France, general and administrator noted for his part in the conquest of Algeria and his efforts to make Algeria a productive colony.

Entering the engineers in 1829, Lamoriciere was sent to ‘Algiers (1830) as captain in the Zouaves.  In 1833 he played a prominent role in the creation of the Arab Bureau, which was to coordinate information on French Arabian colonies.  Military success at Constantine led to his promotion to colonel (1837) and thereafter the rose rapidly to marshal (1840) and to governor of a division (1843).  An efficient and distinguished general, he served as governor general of Algeria during the incumbent’s absence in 1845.

In France in 1846, Lamoriciere was elected deputy for Sarthe and submitted a plan for free, rather than military, colonization  of Algeria.  He was concerned that a war of extermination against the Arabs would leave Algeria a barren wasteland instead of a rich and useful colony.  He served as minister of war (1848) and was sent to Russia on a diplomatic mission (1850-51) dealing with political, military, and colonial affairs.  Opposed to the rising power of Louis Napoleon, he was arrested (1851) and exiled, but was allowed to return in 1857.  In 1860 he led the papal troops against Piedmont, but was defeated at Castelfidardo and returned to France.

27
Nov
09

John Lambert

John Lambert

John Lambert was born in autumn 1619, Calton, West Riding, Yorkshire and he dies on March 1684, at St. Nicholas Isle, off Plymouth, Cornwall.  A leading parliamentary general during the English Civil War (1642-51) and the principal architect of the protectorate, the form of republican government existing in England from 1653 to 1660.  Coming from a well-to-do family of gentry, Lambert joined the parliamentary army as a captain at the outbreak of the Civil War between King Charles I and Parliament.  He first distinguished himself in encounters with the Royalists at Bradford, Yorkshire, in March 1644, and he fought bravely in the major parliamentary victory at Marston Moor, Yorkshire in July 1644.  A major general at the age of 28, he helped Henry Ireton draw up the “Heads of Proposals,” a draft constitution aimed at reconciling the  conflicting interests of the army, Parliament, and the King.

At the beginning of the second phase of the Civil War in 1648, Lambert was commander of the troops of northern England.  He and Oliver Cromwell routed the Scottish Royalist invaders at Preston, Lancashire, in August 1648, and on March 22, 1649, Lambert captured Pontefract, Yorkshire, the last Royalist stronghold in England.

Second in command under Cromwell during the campaigns against the Royalists in Scotland in 1650 and 1651, Lambert and Cromwell, on September 3, 1651, decisively defeated Charles I’s son, Charles II, at Worcester in the final battle of the Civil War.

In succeeding years Lambert played a key role in Cromwell’s experimental governments.  He persuaded Cromwell to dissolve the “Rump” Parliament in 1653, putting the army firmly in control of the government, and was responsible for drawing up the Instruments of Government under which Cromwell assumed dictatorial powers as Lord Protector of the commonwealth in 1653.  Lambert served on the Council of State and was Cromwell’s right-hand man until, in 1657, he outspokenly opposed the proposal that Cromwell be made king.  When he refused to swear allegiance to the Protector, Cromwell deprived him of his offices but granted him a substantial annual pension.

After Cromwell’s death (September 1658), Lambert gradually returned to politics.  He did not openly cooperate with the army officers who deposed Cromwell’s son and successor, Richard, in May 1659, but he was one of the most powerful figures in the ensuing power struggle.  Although he helped restore the “Rimp” Parliament in May 1659, he soon broke with it and dissolved it by force.  Shortly thereafter, his army was defeated by the forces of Gen. George Monck, who marched from Scotland to reinstate parliament.  Monck proceeded to restore King Charles I to power (1660), and in June 1662 Lambert was sentenced to death for his part in the Civil War, Granted a reprieve, he spent the rest of his life in prison.

04
Nov
09

Alfonso Ferrero La Marmora

Alfonso Ferrero La Marmora

Alfonso Ferrero La Marmora

(Born November 18, 1804, Turin, Italy—Died January 5, 1878, Florence), general and statesman played an important role in the Risorgimento (a nationalistic revival movement to unify Italy).

A graduate of the Turin Military Academy, La Marmora entered the army in 1823 and first distinguished himself in the Italian wars of independence against Austria, especially at Borghetto and Pischiera (May 1848).  He also commanded the Sardinian forces in the Crimea (1855).  On August 5, 1848, he rescued  Sardinian king Charles Albert from  Milanese revolutionaries, who had resented the King’s armistice with the Austrians.  He was promoted to general in October and served as minister of war until November;  he later suppressed an insurrection as Genoa (April 4-5 1849)).  As minister of war again until 1860, he reorganized the Italian Army.

La Marmora served as premier of Piedmont from July 1859 to January 1860, as well as governor of Milan and the King’s  lieutenant in Naples.  In September 1864 he again became premier, and as minister of foreign affairs in April 1866, he concluded Italy’s alliance with Prussia against Austria.  As chief of staff in the ensuing war, however, he was held responsible for the overwhelming defeat of the Italians by Austria at Custoza (June 24, 1866).  La Marmora retired to private life shortly afterwards, although, after Rome was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy in 1870, he was appointed the king’s lieutenant there.  Among his several works, Un po plu di luce sugli eventi politici e military dell’anno 1866 (1873; “A Little More Light on the Events of the Year 1866”) seeks to justify his actions at Custoza.




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