Posts Tagged ‘French Revolution


Marie-Antoinette – Queen Consort of King Louis XVII (1 of 2)

Queen Consort of King Louis XVII

Marie Antoinette was born on November 2, 1755 in Vienna and died on October 16, 1793 in Paris.  Queen consort of King Louis XVI of France (ruled 1774-93); by refusing to accept the constitutional restrictions imposed on her husband during the early years of the French Revolution, she contributed to the popular unrest that let to the overthrow of the monarchy in August 1792.

The 11th daughter of the Holy Roman emperor Francis I and Maria Theresa, Marie-Antoinette was married in 1770 to the dauphin Louis, grandson of France’s King Louis XV (ruled 1715-74).  The match was designed to strengthen France’s alliance with Austria, but the anti-Austrian prejudices current in France prevented Mari-Antoinette from winning acceptance in her adopted country.  The timid, uninspiring Louis proved to be an inattentive husband; and by the time he ascended the throne in 1774, Mari-Antoinette had withdrawn into the companionship of a small circle of frivolous court favorites.

At first the Queen was interested in politics only as a means of securing favors for her friends; the efforts she made to advance Austrian interests were blocked by the King and his ministers.  Her extravagant court expenditures contributed—although to a minor degree—to the huge debt incurred by the French state in the 1770s and 1780s, and her close associations with the more dissipated members of the court aristocracy prompted her enemies to circulate slanderous report of her alleged extramarital affairs.  These vilifications culminated in the Affair of the Diamond Necklace (1785-86), in which the Queen was unjustly accused of having formed an immoral relationship with a cardinal.  The scandal discredited the monarchy and encouraged the nobles to oppose vigorously (1787-88) all the financial reforms advocated by the King’s ministers.

During these crises, as in those to come, Marie-Antoinette proved to be stronger and more decisive than her husband.  By the time the Revolution broke out in 1789, she was exerting a powerful influence in the royal councils.  After a crowd stormed the Bastille on July 14, the Queen failed to convince Louis to take refuge with his army at Metz.  In August-September, however, she successfully prodded him to resist the attempts of the revolutionary National Assembly to abolish feudalism and restrict the royal prerogative. – The New Encyclopedia Britannica


Alexandre Lameth (-Theodore-Victor), comte de

Alexandre Lameth

He was born on October 28, 1760, in Paris and died on March 18, 1829, noble who was a leading advocate of constitutional monarchy in the early stages of the French Revolution of 1789.  Lameth and his brothers, Charles and Theodore, fought for the colonists in the American Revolution (1775-83).  On returning of  France, he was appointed colonel of a cavalry regiment (1785).

Lameth was elected a representative for the nobility to the States General that convened on May 5, 1789, but on June 25 he joined the unprivileged Third Estate, which had declared itself a revolutionary National “Assembly.  He helped draft the Assembly’s Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (August 1789), and he supported measures abolishing feudalism and restricting the hitherto absolute powers of King Louis XVL.  In September, Lameth and his two close associates, Antoine Barnave and Adrien Duport—the “triumpvirate”—blocked legislation that would have created a separate legislative chamber for the mobility.

Nevertheless, by the spring of 1791 Lameth and his friends felt that continuation of the “Revolution might endanger the monarchy and private property.  They then became secret advisers to the royal family, which subsidized their paper, the Logographe.  Lameth secured legislation excluding “passive citizens” (those who could not meet the property qualification for voting) from membership in the national guard, and he sought to curb the popular press, which was agitating for democratic reforms.

Louis XVI’s abortive attempt to flee from France in June 1791, however, discredited the new system of constitutional monarchy.  In an attempt to consolidate their forces, Lameth and his associates withdrew from the Jacobin club and formed the Club of the Feuillans.  The triumvirs were ineligible to sit in the Legislative Assembly, which convened on Oct. 1, 1791, but they directed the Feuillants of the Assembly in their unsuccessful struggle against the Jacobins.

When France went to war with Austria in April 1792, Lameth became an officer in the Army of the North.  He emigrated with the marquis de Lafayette after the fall of the monarchy on Aug. 10, 1792.  Interned for more than three years in Austria, Lameth settled in Hamburg in 1796.  After napoleon came to power in France, Lameth returned to his homeland (1800) and served as a prefect from 1802 until 1815.  He was a member of the liberal parliamentary opposition during the reigns of kings Louis XVII and Charles X.


(Hughes-)Felicite(-Robert de) Lamennais

(Hughes-)Felicite(-Robert de) Lamennais

He was a priest and philosophical and political writer who attempted to combine political liberalism with Roman Catholicism after French Revolution.  He was born on June 19, 1782, at Saint-Malo, France.  He died on February 27, 1854, at Paris.  Born to a bourgeois family whose liberal sympathies had been chastened by the French Revolution,  he and his elder brother, Jean early conceived the idea of a revival of Catholicism as the key to social regeneration.  After Napoleon’s restoration of the French Church, the brothers sketched a program of reform in Reflexions sur l’etat de l’eglise en France pendant le 18e  siècle et sur sa situation actuelle (1808; “Reflections on the State of the Church in France During the Eighteenth Century and Her Present Situation”).  Five years later, at the height of the Emperor’s conflict with the papacy, they produced a defense of Ultramontanism (a movement supporting papal prerogatives, in contrast to Gallicanism).  Ordained a priest in 1816, Lamennais published in the following year the first volume of his Essai sur l’indifference en matiere de religion (“Essay on Indifference Toward Religion”).  Appealing to tradition rather than private judgment, it won immediate fame.  But his position began to shift.  Although he attacked the Gallicanism of the bishops and the monarchy in his book Des progress de la revolution et de la guerre contra legalize (1829; “On the Progress of the Revolution and the War Against the Church”), the work showed his readiness to combine Catholicism with political liberalism in France.

After the July, Revolution in 1830, Lamennais founded Leavened with Henri Lacordaire, Charles de Montalembert, and a group of enthusiastic liberal Catholic writers.  The paper, which advocated democratic principle and church-state separation, antagonized both the church and the state in France and despite its Ultramontanism found little favor in Rome, for Pope Gregory XVI had no wish to assume the revolutionary role designed for him.  Publication of the paper was suspended in November 1831, and after a vain appeal to the Pope its principles were condemned in the encyclical Mirari Vos (August 1832).  Lamennais then attacked the papacy and the European monarchs in Paroles d’ un croyani (1834), provoking the encyclical Singulari Nos (July 1834), which lead to his severance from the church.  He continued to write philosophical and literary works, including Le Livre du people (1838);  “The Book of the People”), and he served in the constituent assembly after the Revolution of 1848.  But his hopes were again defeated when the coup d’etat set the seal on Louis-Napoleon’s dictatorship.  Having refused to be reconciled to the church, Lamennais was buried in a pauper’s grave.  His life and works are discussed in A.R. Vidler’s Prophecy and Papacy:  A Study of Lamennais, the Church and the Revolution (1954).



Marie-Therese Lamballe – Louise de Savoie-Carignan, Princess De




Lamballe, Mari-Therese-Louise de Savoie-Carignan, princesse de 

(Birth: September 8, 1749, Turin, Piedmont, now in Italy—Death: September 3, 1792, Paris), the intimate companion of Queen Marie-Antoinette of France; she was murdered by a crowd during the French Revolution for allegedly participating in the Queen’s counter revolutionary intrigues. 

The daughter of Prince Louis-Victor de Savoie-Carignan, she was married in 1767 to Louis-Alexander-Stanislas de Bourbon, prince de Lamballe, who died the following year.  She went to live at the royal court at Versailles upon the marriage (1770) of the dauphin Louis to Marie-Antoinette, and, by the time Louis ascended the throne as King Louis XVI in 1774, Marie-Antoinette had singled her out as a confidante.  The following year she became superintendent of the Queen’s household. 

In October 1789, several months after the outbreak of the ‘revolution, Mme Lamballe accompanied the royal family to Paris, where her salon became the meeting place for Marie-Antoinette’s secret intrigues with royalist sympathizers of the revolutionary National Assembly.  Mme Lamballe was also popularly suspected of abetting the Queen’s private dealings with France’s Austrian enemies.  After the overthrow of the monarchy of August 10. 1792, she was imprisoned with the Queen in the Temple prison but was transferred to La Force prison on August 19.  Having refused to take an oath against the monarchy, Mme Lamballe was on September 3 delivered over to the fury of the populace, who cut off her head and carried it on a pike before the windows of the Queen. 

A.  Sorel’s La Princesse de Lamballe was published in 1933. 


Visual source:  allposters

July 2020

Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

Join 5 other followers

Active Researchers Actual Leader Advocate Home Gardening Aggrandize Power Aggressive Research Annual Ritual Remembrance Another Tradition Applications in Plant Breeding Appropriate Knowledge Architect Architecture Artificial Coral Reef Asian Champion Asian Country Background Knowledge Best Faculty Member Better man Better Quality Big Gumamela Flowers Bitter Quarrels Books of Old Testaments Building Groups Buildings Career Careful Thinking Caste Place Central Figure Champins in the Game Chiefly Remembered Cloaked Woman Close Friends Closest Friends Collection of Quotations Companion Volume Comparative Life Computerized Operations Conceptual Design Consent of Human Mind Contemplated Flight Contemporary French Influence Continous Emphasis Contrasting Figures Controlling Plant Shoot Formation Conventional Classic Imagery Conventional Copper Wires Creative Designs Crowd of Pupils Crucial Work Line Cultivation of Personal Friendship Cultured Atmosphere Cultured Elite Current Trend Dedicated Coordinator Deep Concern Deep Drainage Channel Deepest Man Deep Hostility Deep Impression Deep Interest Deep Sense of Morality Delicate Neoclassical Adam Style Designs Destructive Fishing Practices Deteriorated Community Development of Plants Dialectical Analysis Direct Influence Disrupted by War Domed hall Domestic Architecture Drastic Conclusion Early Career Early Mathematical Training Early National Period Efficient Transactions Elderly Beau Eldest Son Elegant Art Eminent Scientist Eventual Annexation Exceptional Ability Exemplary Scientific Innovation Exhibition Work Exploding World of Science and Technology Exterior Expression Famed People Fame Writer Famous Convent for Women Famous Historia calamitatum Faster Data Transmission Faster Transactions Field of Huan Nutrition Final Version of Orechestra Fine City Firm Hand First Community-based Program First Important Work Fluent German Speaker Foremost mathematician Foremost Scottish Architect Forest Setting Former Admirer Formidable Cash Crop Formulated Basic Rules Fuller Understanding Functional Equations and integrals Future Frame Golden Calf Good Acquaintance Good Degree Good Life Good Professor Good Reputation Grand Tour of Europe Great Deal Greater in Umber Greatest British Architect Great Hour of Vicotry Great Ideas Great Liberal Sage Great Monasery Great Occasion Great Tragedies Great Variety of Letters Growing power of Economic Monpolies Hard Corals Hard Work Haunting Fear of Senility Heaviliy Critize Highest Advisory Highest Award Highest Priesthood House Completion House Redecoration Immediate Success Importance of Intellectual Work Important Assignment Important Figures Important Position important Professional Influence Independent Philosophy of Language Indigenous Medicinal Plants Influential Supporter Informal Warmth Inspired Men Inteior Style of Slip-pilasters International Consultations Ironic Literary Style Jewish Community Keen Student Kernel of Truth Kid's favorite game Laminated Wood Large Populations Largest Hospital Latest Fashion Layers of Traditions Leading Biblical Scholar Leading Journals Levi Tribe Library Lifelong Friendship Lifetime Study Literary Activity Literary Figure Living Proof Local Consultations Logical Writing Main Responsibility Main Support Foundation Major Viral Disease Many Countries Many Domestic Commissions Many Fundamental Aspect Marine REserves Significant Role Marital Unhappiness Martyred Apostle Materials Mathematical Reasoning Mathematical Talent Mature Style Merit Attention Meticulous Attention Midieval History Milston Moblized Team Modern Egalitarian Modernize Farming Methods Modern Mathematics Modified Foods Monumental Hall More Dominant Position More Effective Marine Sanctuaries More Powerful Whig Most Distinguised Most Distinguised Autobiographies Most Influenc=tial Figure Most Influential Master Most Sacred Part of Tabernacle Most Universally Admired Multilevel Room Narrative Told National Invitation New Architectural Style New Breed New Community New Foundation New Freedom New Light New Lightness New Lord Lieutenant New Monarch Notable Training Numerous Essays Nutritional Acceptability of Cluny Old-fashioned Country Squire Old Center Court Oldest One Oldest Simplest Greek Style Old Patron Opposing Side Opposite Poles of Philosophy Original Unwillingness Oustanding Biographies Out of Place Outstanding Educator Outstanding Pediatrician Award Outstanding Physician Award Own Love Letters Own Religious Correspondence Partially Paralyzed Partial Success Passionate Cares Peace Loving Perfect Building Perpetual Statue Personal Mission Physical Organic Chemistry Point of Dispute Popular Italia Opera Potential Flash Flood Probing Plants Prominent Whig Leader Proper Utilization of Science Public Buildings Purpose of Christ's Life Quiet Force Raised Funds Real Potential Rectangular Building Rectangular Column Resolute Defender of Liberty Resounding Cndemnation Ribbonlike Forms Rich Souce Romantic Figure Romantic Neo-Gothic Castles Sanatorium Scholarly Work Schools Seasonal Changes Second Highest Position Secretly Married Self Taught Enthusiast Seminar Method Seriously Ill Several International Publications Several Prestigious Awards Several Sources Several Studies Several Terraces of Houses Severity Shor Time Short Life Short Masterpiece Short Story Significant Contribution Significant Neo-classical Interiors Significant Researches Similar Fisheries Development Program Simple Things Six-storey Serpentine Wall Skillful Mediation Sled Trip Some Esegetes Source of Supplementary Vitamins Specific Plant Development Pathways Strong Contempt Strong Effort Strong Priesthood Style Style of Decoration Substantial Tory Victory Successful Exterior Successful Forecasts Suitable Position Superior Data Transmission Sustainale Development Sweeping Victory Swollen Volcanic Lake Sympthetic Commentators Tactful Hand Talented Young French Architect Teaching of Philisophy Timid Natures Tirelessly Criticize Top of Mt. Hor Towering Figure Town Hall Traditional Materials Traditional Reaching Typical Patrician Fashion Unbendable Perseverance Undergraduate Degree Undoubted Success Unfavorable Story Unified Scheme Unique Semiconductor Unique Semiconductor Materials University Small Grant Unmarked Grave Unobtrusive Decoration Unofficial Title Unofficial World Singles Champion Unquestionable Love for Country Unusual Area Upper Section of Wall Useful Art Valuable Contribution to Pediatrics Variety of Rice Various Achievement Various Senses Varius Line of Development Very ASctive Part Very Obscure Field Very Popular Music Virtually Collaborated Warm Encouragement Wealthiest Families Wedge-shaped rooms Widely Known Wiltshire Wolly Blameless Wood Structure Work Focus Worse Man Younger Brother James Young Scientist Young Scientists