Posts Tagged ‘France


Claude Lancelot ~ Jansenist

He was born on 1615-16 in Paris and died on April 15, 1695 in Quimperle, France.  He was Jansenist who introduced a new method of teaching languages.  In 1637 he studied under Abbot Jean Du Vergier de Haurance, one of the fathers of Jansenism, the condemned doctrine advocating that there is no freedom of the will and that redemption is not universal.  Lancelot became one of the first hermits of Port Royal, the Jansenist centre near Versailles, Fr. From 1645/46 he taught in the Petites Ecoles, Les Granges, Fr., where the celebrated dramatist Jean Racine was among his pupils.  He wrote Nouvelle Methode pour apprendre in langue latine (1644) and Nouvelle Methode pour apprendre la langue grecque (1655), in which the rules of grammar are explained in French rhymes.  His famous Jardin des raciness grecques (1657); “Garden of Greek Roots”), an alphabetical vocabulary of Greek words with French translation in rhyming verse form, was used for two centuries.  His Nouvelle Methode pour apprendre facilement et en peu de temps la langue italienne, and Methode de plain-chant appeared in 1660.

During the persecution of Jansenism, the Petites Ecoles was dispersed, and Lancelot served as mediator between Port Royal and the pope (1644-69).  From 1699 to 1672 he tutored the young princes de Conti and completed his Memoires (published posthumously in 1738)/  je joined the Cistercian abbey of Saint Cyran but for being a Jansenist was exiled (1679/80 to Saint Croix Abbey, Quimperle.  L. Cognet’s Claude Lancelot appeared in 1950.

Reference:  New Encyclopedia Britannica


Marie-Antoinette – Queen Consort of King Louis XVII (1 of 2)

Queen Consort of King Louis XVII

Marie Antoinette was born on November 2, 1755 in Vienna and died on October 16, 1793 in Paris.  Queen consort of King Louis XVI of France (ruled 1774-93); by refusing to accept the constitutional restrictions imposed on her husband during the early years of the French Revolution, she contributed to the popular unrest that let to the overthrow of the monarchy in August 1792.

The 11th daughter of the Holy Roman emperor Francis I and Maria Theresa, Marie-Antoinette was married in 1770 to the dauphin Louis, grandson of France’s King Louis XV (ruled 1715-74).  The match was designed to strengthen France’s alliance with Austria, but the anti-Austrian prejudices current in France prevented Mari-Antoinette from winning acceptance in her adopted country.  The timid, uninspiring Louis proved to be an inattentive husband; and by the time he ascended the throne in 1774, Mari-Antoinette had withdrawn into the companionship of a small circle of frivolous court favorites.

At first the Queen was interested in politics only as a means of securing favors for her friends; the efforts she made to advance Austrian interests were blocked by the King and his ministers.  Her extravagant court expenditures contributed—although to a minor degree—to the huge debt incurred by the French state in the 1770s and 1780s, and her close associations with the more dissipated members of the court aristocracy prompted her enemies to circulate slanderous report of her alleged extramarital affairs.  These vilifications culminated in the Affair of the Diamond Necklace (1785-86), in which the Queen was unjustly accused of having formed an immoral relationship with a cardinal.  The scandal discredited the monarchy and encouraged the nobles to oppose vigorously (1787-88) all the financial reforms advocated by the King’s ministers.

During these crises, as in those to come, Marie-Antoinette proved to be stronger and more decisive than her husband.  By the time the Revolution broke out in 1789, she was exerting a powerful influence in the royal councils.  After a crowd stormed the Bastille on July 14, the Queen failed to convince Louis to take refuge with his army at Metz.  In August-September, however, she successfully prodded him to resist the attempts of the revolutionary National Assembly to abolish feudalism and restrict the royal prerogative. – The New Encyclopedia Britannica


Marie – Queen of France

Consort of King Louis XV of France

Marie, in Polish Maria Leszczynska (b. June 23, 1703, Breslau, Silesia, now Wroclaw, Pol.—d, June 24, 1768, Versailles, Fr.), queen consort of King Louis XV of France (ruled 1715-74).  Although she had no direct influence on French politics, her Polish dynastic connections involved France in a European conflict that resulted in the eventual annexation of Lorraine by France.

Marie’s father, Stanislaw I of Poland in 1704.  After he was deposed in 1709, he settled with Marie at Wissembourg.  In the hope of quickly obtaining an heir to the French throne, Lois XV’s chief minister, the Duc de Bourbon, betrothed the 15-year-old king to Marie in 1725.

The marriage took place at Fontainebleau on September 5, Marie bore Louis 10 children between 1727 and 1737, but only one of her two sons—the dauphin Louis—survived infancy.  In 1733 France entered the War of the Polish Succession against Austria in support of Stanislaw’s claims to the Polish throne; Stanislaw was made duke of Lorraine but the treaty that ended the conflict (1738).  Meanwhile, Louise XV, having lost interest in his queen, was lavishing his attentions on a succession of mistresses.  Marie’s marital unhappiness was intensified by the death of the Dauphin in 1765.  In accordance with the treaty of 1738, Lorraine became a part of France when her father died in the following year.  A. Leroy’s Marie Leczinska appeared in 1940. – The New Encyclopedia Britannica


Julien Offroy de La Mettrie – Physician and Philosopher

Physician and Philosopher

He was born on Decmeber 25, 1709, in Saint-Malo, France and died on November 11, 1751, in Berlin.  He is a physician and philosopher whose Materialistic interpretation of psychic phenomena laid the groundwork for future developments of behaviorism and played an important part in the history of modern Materialism.  He obtained a medical degree at Reims, studied medicine in Leiden under Herman Boerhaave (some of whose works he translated into French), and served as surgeon to the French military.  A personal illness convinced him that psychic phenomena were directly related to organic changes in the brain and nervous system.  The outcry following publication of these views in Histoire naturelle de l’ame (1745; “Natural History of the Soul”) forced his departure from Paris.  The book was burned by the public hangman.  In Holland La Mettrie published L’Homme-machine (1747; L’Homme Machine: A Study in the Origins of an Ida, 1960), developing more boldly and completely, and with great originality, his materialistic and atheistic views.  The ethics of these principles were worked out in Discours sur le Bonheur ou l’ anti-Seneque (“Discourse on Happiness, or the Anti-Seneca”).  He was then forced to leave Holland but the Great, made court reader, and appointed to the academy of science.  In accord with his belief that atheism was the sole road to happiness and sense pleasure the purpose of life (Le Petit Homme a longue quequ, 1751; “The Small Man in a Long Queuq”), he was a carefree hedonist to the end, finally dying of ptomaine poisoning.  His collected works, Oeuvres philosophiques, were published in 1751, and selections were edited by Marcelle Tisserand in 1954.

Photo courtesy:  answer

Franz Lambert – Francois Lambert D’ Avignon

Franz Lambert was also known as Francois Lambert D’ Avignon.  He was born in 1486, Avignon, France and died on April 18, 1530, Frankenberg, Prussia, now Poland.  He was a Protestant convert from Roman Catholicism and leading Reformer in the German province of Hesse.  The son of a papal official at Avignon, at 15 he entered the Franciscan monastery there.  After 1517 he became an itinerant friar, travelling through France, Italy, and Switzerland.  He left his cloister permanently in 1522 after reading some of Martin Luther’s writings, although he withheld commitment from both Luther and the Swiss Reformer Huldrych Zwingli (1484-1531).

After a meeting with Luther in Wittenberg, where he had gone to lecture, he returned to Strassburg in 1524 to preach Reformation doctrines to the French-speaking population.  There he encountered the Reformer Jakob Sturn, who recommended him to the landgrave Philip of Hesse, the German prince most favourably inclined toward the Reformation.  Encouraged by Philip, Lambert drafted Reformation ecclesiarum Hassiae (“The Reformation of the Churches of Hesse”), submitted by Philip to the synod at Homberg (1526).  Lambert’s document called for democratic principles of congregational representation in church government, by which pastors were to be elected by their congregations.  He believed he was expressing Luther’s views, including the abolition of bishoprics, but Luther and his adherents pronounced the plan as too democratic, and Philip abandoned it.  Nevertheless, Lambert’s influence persisted in Hesse, where with Philip’s assent the Anabaptists, firm advocates of congregationalism were permitted to flourish.  In 1527 Philip founded the University of Marburg and recognized Lambert’s service by appointing him head to the theological facility.



Marie-Amèlie (de Bourbon-Sicilies) – Daughter of Ferdinand IV of Naples

The daughter of Ferdinand lV of Naples

She was born on April 26, 1782 at Caserta, Italy and died on March 24, 1866 in Claremont, Surrey.  Queen of Louis-Philippe, king of France (1830-48).  She took no interest in politics and devoted her life to her husband and the bringing up of her eight children.  The daughter of Ferdinand lV of Naples (later Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies) and Queen Maria Carolina, she was given a religious education.  She married the exiled Louis-Philippe, then duc d’Orlèans, on November 25, 1809, at Palermo.  She went with him to France when Louis XVIII became king after Napoleon’s 1814 downfall, but she fled to England during the Hundred Days (1815) and returned to Paris in 1817.  When Louis-Philippe ascended the throne in 1830, she lived in fear of a new revolution and avoided public life.  With the abdication of Louis-Philippe in February 1848, they went to England.  She was widowed in 1850.  Her Journal was published in two volumes (1938-43). – The New Encyclopedia Britannica



Paul de Lamerie – English Silversmith

Paul de Lamerie

He was born on April 9, 1688, ‘s Hertogenbosch, Netherland and died on August 1, 1751, in London.  Probably the best known English silversmith.  His parents, Huguenots who probably left France for religious reasons in the early 1680s, by 1691 had settled in Westminster.

After serving as an apprentice to a London goldsmith, Pierre Platel, de Lamerie registered his mark and established his own shop in 1712.  Early in his career he made simple vessels, such as tankards and teapots, in an unornamented Queen Anne style and more pretentious works, such as a large wine cistern (cooler for wine bottles) for the first earl Gower (1719; Minneapolis [Minn.] Institute of Arts), in an ornamented style associated with the work of French Huguenot craftsmen.

In the 1730s de Lamerie was producing works, particularly covered cups, in his version of the Rococo style.  A notable example of 1737 is a cup, the handles of which are in the form of realistic snakes (owned by the Fishmoners’ Company, London).  A further example of his rich Rococo decoration is a ewer (1741; Goldsmith’s Company, London) with a handle in the form of the figure of a triton.

Unlike the silversmiths on the Continent, de Lamerie made many uncommissioned works that were intended to be stocked for later sale. 

Photo courtesy:

May 2020

Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

Join 5 other followers

Active Researchers Actual Leader Advocate Home Gardening Aggrandize Power Aggressive Research Annual Ritual Remembrance Another Tradition Applications in Plant Breeding Appropriate Knowledge Architect Architecture Artificial Coral Reef Asian Champion Asian Country Background Knowledge Best Faculty Member Better man Better Quality Big Gumamela Flowers Bitter Quarrels Books of Old Testaments Building Groups Buildings Career Careful Thinking Caste Place Central Figure Champins in the Game Chiefly Remembered Cloaked Woman Close Friends Closest Friends Collection of Quotations Companion Volume Comparative Life Computerized Operations Conceptual Design Consent of Human Mind Contemplated Flight Contemporary French Influence Continous Emphasis Contrasting Figures Controlling Plant Shoot Formation Conventional Classic Imagery Conventional Copper Wires Creative Designs Crowd of Pupils Crucial Work Line Cultivation of Personal Friendship Cultured Atmosphere Cultured Elite Current Trend Dedicated Coordinator Deep Concern Deep Drainage Channel Deepest Man Deep Hostility Deep Impression Deep Interest Deep Sense of Morality Delicate Neoclassical Adam Style Designs Destructive Fishing Practices Deteriorated Community Development of Plants Dialectical Analysis Direct Influence Disrupted by War Domed hall Domestic Architecture Drastic Conclusion Early Career Early Mathematical Training Early National Period Efficient Transactions Elderly Beau Eldest Son Elegant Art Eminent Scientist Eventual Annexation Exceptional Ability Exemplary Scientific Innovation Exhibition Work Exploding World of Science and Technology Exterior Expression Famed People Fame Writer Famous Convent for Women Famous Historia calamitatum Faster Data Transmission Faster Transactions Field of Huan Nutrition Final Version of Orechestra Fine City Firm Hand First Community-based Program First Important Work Fluent German Speaker Foremost mathematician Foremost Scottish Architect Forest Setting Former Admirer Formidable Cash Crop Formulated Basic Rules Fuller Understanding Functional Equations and integrals Future Frame Golden Calf Good Acquaintance Good Degree Good Life Good Professor Good Reputation Grand Tour of Europe Great Deal Greater in Umber Greatest British Architect Great Hour of Vicotry Great Ideas Great Liberal Sage Great Monasery Great Occasion Great Tragedies Great Variety of Letters Growing power of Economic Monpolies Hard Corals Hard Work Haunting Fear of Senility Heaviliy Critize Highest Advisory Highest Award Highest Priesthood House Completion House Redecoration Immediate Success Importance of Intellectual Work Important Assignment Important Figures Important Position important Professional Influence Independent Philosophy of Language Indigenous Medicinal Plants Influential Supporter Informal Warmth Inspired Men Inteior Style of Slip-pilasters International Consultations Ironic Literary Style Jewish Community Keen Student Kernel of Truth Kid's favorite game Laminated Wood Large Populations Largest Hospital Latest Fashion Layers of Traditions Leading Biblical Scholar Leading Journals Levi Tribe Library Lifelong Friendship Lifetime Study Literary Activity Literary Figure Living Proof Local Consultations Logical Writing Main Responsibility Main Support Foundation Major Viral Disease Many Countries Many Domestic Commissions Many Fundamental Aspect Marine REserves Significant Role Marital Unhappiness Martyred Apostle Materials Mathematical Reasoning Mathematical Talent Mature Style Merit Attention Meticulous Attention Midieval History Milston Moblized Team Modern Egalitarian Modernize Farming Methods Modern Mathematics Modified Foods Monumental Hall More Dominant Position More Effective Marine Sanctuaries More Powerful Whig Most Distinguised Most Distinguised Autobiographies Most Influenc=tial Figure Most Influential Master Most Sacred Part of Tabernacle Most Universally Admired Multilevel Room Narrative Told National Invitation New Architectural Style New Breed New Community New Foundation New Freedom New Light New Lightness New Lord Lieutenant New Monarch Notable Training Numerous Essays Nutritional Acceptability of Cluny Old-fashioned Country Squire Old Center Court Oldest One Oldest Simplest Greek Style Old Patron Opposing Side Opposite Poles of Philosophy Original Unwillingness Oustanding Biographies Out of Place Outstanding Educator Outstanding Pediatrician Award Outstanding Physician Award Own Love Letters Own Religious Correspondence Partially Paralyzed Partial Success Passionate Cares Peace Loving Perfect Building Perpetual Statue Personal Mission Physical Organic Chemistry Point of Dispute Popular Italia Opera Potential Flash Flood Probing Plants Prominent Whig Leader Proper Utilization of Science Public Buildings Purpose of Christ's Life Quiet Force Raised Funds Real Potential Rectangular Building Rectangular Column Resolute Defender of Liberty Resounding Cndemnation Ribbonlike Forms Rich Souce Romantic Figure Romantic Neo-Gothic Castles Sanatorium Scholarly Work Schools Seasonal Changes Second Highest Position Secretly Married Self Taught Enthusiast Seminar Method Seriously Ill Several International Publications Several Prestigious Awards Several Sources Several Studies Several Terraces of Houses Severity Shor Time Short Life Short Masterpiece Short Story Significant Contribution Significant Neo-classical Interiors Significant Researches Similar Fisheries Development Program Simple Things Six-storey Serpentine Wall Skillful Mediation Sled Trip Some Esegetes Source of Supplementary Vitamins Specific Plant Development Pathways Strong Contempt Strong Effort Strong Priesthood Style Style of Decoration Substantial Tory Victory Successful Exterior Successful Forecasts Suitable Position Superior Data Transmission Sustainale Development Sweeping Victory Swollen Volcanic Lake Sympthetic Commentators Tactful Hand Talented Young French Architect Teaching of Philisophy Timid Natures Tirelessly Criticize Top of Mt. Hor Towering Figure Town Hall Traditional Materials Traditional Reaching Typical Patrician Fashion Unbendable Perseverance Undergraduate Degree Undoubted Success Unfavorable Story Unified Scheme Unique Semiconductor Unique Semiconductor Materials University Small Grant Unmarked Grave Unobtrusive Decoration Unofficial Title Unofficial World Singles Champion Unquestionable Love for Country Unusual Area Upper Section of Wall Useful Art Valuable Contribution to Pediatrics Variety of Rice Various Achievement Various Senses Varius Line of Development Very ASctive Part Very Obscure Field Very Popular Music Virtually Collaborated Warm Encouragement Wealthiest Families Wedge-shaped rooms Widely Known Wiltshire Wolly Blameless Wood Structure Work Focus Worse Man Younger Brother James Young Scientist Young Scientists