Posts Tagged ‘England


Marie-Amèlie (de Bourbon-Sicilies) – Daughter of Ferdinand IV of Naples

The daughter of Ferdinand lV of Naples

She was born on April 26, 1782 at Caserta, Italy and died on March 24, 1866 in Claremont, Surrey.  Queen of Louis-Philippe, king of France (1830-48).  She took no interest in politics and devoted her life to her husband and the bringing up of her eight children.  The daughter of Ferdinand lV of Naples (later Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies) and Queen Maria Carolina, she was given a religious education.  She married the exiled Louis-Philippe, then duc d’Orlèans, on November 25, 1809, at Palermo.  She went with him to France when Louis XVIII became king after Napoleon’s 1814 downfall, but she fled to England during the Hundred Days (1815) and returned to Paris in 1817.  When Louis-Philippe ascended the throne in 1830, she lived in fear of a new revolution and avoided public life.  With the abdication of Louis-Philippe in February 1848, they went to England.  She was widowed in 1850.  Her Journal was published in two volumes (1938-43). – The New Encyclopedia Britannica



Constant Lambert ~ English Composer, Conductor and Critic

English Conductor

Constant Lambert was born on August 23, 1905 and died on August 21, 1951 in London.

English composer, conductor, and critic who played a leading part in extablishing the ballet as an art form in England.  Commissioned (1926) by Diaghilev to compose the ballet Romeo and Juliet, he became conductor (1929) of the Camargo Society that led to the creation of the Sadler’s Wells Ballet, which he then directed until 1947.  His works include the ballet Horoscope (first produced 1938) and the song cycle Eight Chinese Songs (composed 1926).  A perspicacious critic, his Music Ho! A study of Music in Decline (1934) is an illuminating study of 20th-century music.

Photo courtesy:  fds.oup


John Lambert

John Lambert

John Lambert was born in autumn 1619, Calton, West Riding, Yorkshire and he dies on March 1684, at St. Nicholas Isle, off Plymouth, Cornwall.  A leading parliamentary general during the English Civil War (1642-51) and the principal architect of the protectorate, the form of republican government existing in England from 1653 to 1660.  Coming from a well-to-do family of gentry, Lambert joined the parliamentary army as a captain at the outbreak of the Civil War between King Charles I and Parliament.  He first distinguished himself in encounters with the Royalists at Bradford, Yorkshire, in March 1644, and he fought bravely in the major parliamentary victory at Marston Moor, Yorkshire in July 1644.  A major general at the age of 28, he helped Henry Ireton draw up the “Heads of Proposals,” a draft constitution aimed at reconciling the  conflicting interests of the army, Parliament, and the King.

At the beginning of the second phase of the Civil War in 1648, Lambert was commander of the troops of northern England.  He and Oliver Cromwell routed the Scottish Royalist invaders at Preston, Lancashire, in August 1648, and on March 22, 1649, Lambert captured Pontefract, Yorkshire, the last Royalist stronghold in England.

Second in command under Cromwell during the campaigns against the Royalists in Scotland in 1650 and 1651, Lambert and Cromwell, on September 3, 1651, decisively defeated Charles I’s son, Charles II, at Worcester in the final battle of the Civil War.

In succeeding years Lambert played a key role in Cromwell’s experimental governments.  He persuaded Cromwell to dissolve the “Rump” Parliament in 1653, putting the army firmly in control of the government, and was responsible for drawing up the Instruments of Government under which Cromwell assumed dictatorial powers as Lord Protector of the commonwealth in 1653.  Lambert served on the Council of State and was Cromwell’s right-hand man until, in 1657, he outspokenly opposed the proposal that Cromwell be made king.  When he refused to swear allegiance to the Protector, Cromwell deprived him of his offices but granted him a substantial annual pension.

After Cromwell’s death (September 1658), Lambert gradually returned to politics.  He did not openly cooperate with the army officers who deposed Cromwell’s son and successor, Richard, in May 1659, but he was one of the most powerful figures in the ensuing power struggle.  Although he helped restore the “Rimp” Parliament in May 1659, he soon broke with it and dissolved it by force.  Shortly thereafter, his army was defeated by the forces of Gen. George Monck, who marched from Scotland to reinstate parliament.  Monck proceeded to restore King Charles I to power (1660), and in June 1662 Lambert was sentenced to death for his part in the Civil War, Granted a reprieve, he spent the rest of his life in prison.


Robert Adam (3 of 6)

He had to decide:  “Shall I lose Hope and my introduction to the great, or shall I lose Clerisseau and my taste for the grand?”

He quarreled with Hope, and the two separated.  Taking rooms for himself and Clerisseau , Robert settled down to serious study, visiting, sketching, and measuring the monuments of antiquity.  Among the important figures he met in Rome were the art collector Cardinal Albani and the engraver Giambattista Piranesi, who dedicated an engraving and a book to him.

In May 1755 Adam and Clerisseau left Rome and travelled to Dalmatia via Venice to visit the ruins of Diocletian’s palace at Spalatro (Split).  Adam felt he

Could not help considering my knowledge of Architecture as imperfect, unless I should be able to add the observation of a private edifice of the Ancients to my study of their public works.

They spent five weeks at Spalatro, preparing the drawings that were eventually to be published in 1764 as the Ruins of the Palace of the Emperor Diocletian at Spalatro in Dalmatia.

Having nearly exhausted his money and anxious to return to England, Robert had to forgo the pleasures of further expeditions to Greece and Egypt.  He returned to London in January 1758, his head full of details of Roman antiquities.  The current Palladian style was losing its appeal, and the public was ready for a new architectural style.  Adam lost no time in making his reputation, and by the mid 1760s he had, with the help of his younger brother James, who joined him in London in 1763, created and fully developed the Adam style.  That style, which he and James later claimed had “brought about, in this country . . . a kind of revolution in the whole system of this useful and elegant art,” was marked by a then new lightness and freedom in the use of the classical elements of architecture. (S.Mi.)

July 2020

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