Posts Tagged ‘Austria

05
Oct
10

Marie-Antoinette – Queen Consort of King Louis XVII (2 of 2)

Queen Consort of King Louis XVII

Good morning everyone.   This is the second part of the article and it will be good if you read the first article before reading.  Let me continue the second part now ….

As a result, she became the main target of the popular agitators, who attributed to her the celebrated and callous remark concerning the poor:  “If they have no bread, let them eat cake!”  in October 1789 popular pressure compelled the royal family to return from Versailles, to Paris, where they became hostages of the Revolutionary movement.  Six months later Marie-Antoinette opened secret communication with the Comte de Mirabeau, a prominent member of the National  Assembly who hoped to restore the authority of the crown.  Nevertheless, her mistrust of Mirabeau prevented the King from following his advice.  After assistance to a group of émigrés (nobles in exile).  They arranged for the King and Queen to escape from Paris on the night of June 20, but Revolutionary forces apprehended the royal couple at Varennes (June 25) and escorted them back to Paris.

Marie-Antoinette then attempted to shore up the rapidly deteriorating position of the crown by opening secret negotiations with Antoine Barnave, leader of the constitutional monarchist faction in the Assembly.  Barnave persuaded the King to publicly accept the new constitution (September 1791); but the Queen undermined Barnave’s position by privately urging her brother, the Holy Roman emperor Leopold ll, to conduct a counter-revolutionary crusade against France.  Leopold avoided according to her demands.  After France declared war on Austria in April 1792, Marie-Antoinette’s continuing intrigues with the Austrians further enraged the French.  Popular hatred of the Queen provided impetus to the insurrection that overthrew the monarchy on Aug. 10, 1792.

Marie-Antoinette spent the remainder of her life in Parisian prisons.  Louis XVl was executed on orders from the National Convention in January 1793, and in August the Queen was put in solitary confinement in the Conciergerie.  Despite her sufferings, her courage remained unshaken.  She was brought before the Revolutionary tribunal on Oct. 14, 1793, and guillotined two days later.

Louis-Joseph, the first son of Louis XVl and Marie-Antoinette, died in June 1789; their second son, who became the titular king of France (as Louis XVII) upon Louis XVl’s execution, died in a Parisian prison in June 1795. – The New Encyclopedia Britannica

 

04
Dec
09

Alexandre Lameth (-Theodore-Victor), comte de

Alexandre Lameth

He was born on October 28, 1760, in Paris and died on March 18, 1829, noble who was a leading advocate of constitutional monarchy in the early stages of the French Revolution of 1789.  Lameth and his brothers, Charles and Theodore, fought for the colonists in the American Revolution (1775-83).  On returning of  France, he was appointed colonel of a cavalry regiment (1785).

Lameth was elected a representative for the nobility to the States General that convened on May 5, 1789, but on June 25 he joined the unprivileged Third Estate, which had declared itself a revolutionary National “Assembly.  He helped draft the Assembly’s Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (August 1789), and he supported measures abolishing feudalism and restricting the hitherto absolute powers of King Louis XVL.  In September, Lameth and his two close associates, Antoine Barnave and Adrien Duport—the “triumpvirate”—blocked legislation that would have created a separate legislative chamber for the mobility.

Nevertheless, by the spring of 1791 Lameth and his friends felt that continuation of the “Revolution might endanger the monarchy and private property.  They then became secret advisers to the royal family, which subsidized their paper, the Logographe.  Lameth secured legislation excluding “passive citizens” (those who could not meet the property qualification for voting) from membership in the national guard, and he sought to curb the popular press, which was agitating for democratic reforms.

Louis XVI’s abortive attempt to flee from France in June 1791, however, discredited the new system of constitutional monarchy.  In an attempt to consolidate their forces, Lameth and his associates withdrew from the Jacobin club and formed the Club of the Feuillans.  The triumvirs were ineligible to sit in the Legislative Assembly, which convened on Oct. 1, 1791, but they directed the Feuillants of the Assembly in their unsuccessful struggle against the Jacobins.

When France went to war with Austria in April 1792, Lameth became an officer in the Army of the North.  He emigrated with the marquis de Lafayette after the fall of the monarchy on Aug. 10, 1792.  Interned for more than three years in Austria, Lameth settled in Hamburg in 1796.  After napoleon came to power in France, Lameth returned to his homeland (1800) and served as a prefect from 1802 until 1815.  He was a member of the liberal parliamentary opposition during the reigns of kings Louis XVII and Charles X.

04
Nov
09

Alfonso Ferrero La Marmora

Alfonso Ferrero La Marmora

Alfonso Ferrero La Marmora

(Born November 18, 1804, Turin, Italy—Died January 5, 1878, Florence), general and statesman played an important role in the Risorgimento (a nationalistic revival movement to unify Italy).

A graduate of the Turin Military Academy, La Marmora entered the army in 1823 and first distinguished himself in the Italian wars of independence against Austria, especially at Borghetto and Pischiera (May 1848).  He also commanded the Sardinian forces in the Crimea (1855).  On August 5, 1848, he rescued  Sardinian king Charles Albert from  Milanese revolutionaries, who had resented the King’s armistice with the Austrians.  He was promoted to general in October and served as minister of war until November;  he later suppressed an insurrection as Genoa (April 4-5 1849)).  As minister of war again until 1860, he reorganized the Italian Army.

La Marmora served as premier of Piedmont from July 1859 to January 1860, as well as governor of Milan and the King’s  lieutenant in Naples.  In September 1864 he again became premier, and as minister of foreign affairs in April 1866, he concluded Italy’s alliance with Prussia against Austria.  As chief of staff in the ensuing war, however, he was held responsible for the overwhelming defeat of the Italians by Austria at Custoza (June 24, 1866).  La Marmora retired to private life shortly afterwards, although, after Rome was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy in 1870, he was appointed the king’s lieutenant there.  Among his several works, Un po plu di luce sugli eventi politici e military dell’anno 1866 (1873; “A Little More Light on the Events of the Year 1866”) seeks to justify his actions at Custoza.

30
Sep
09

Marie, Queen of France

Queen of France

Queen of France

Marie, in Polish Maria Leszczynska (b. June 23, 1703, Breslau, Silesia, now Wroclaw, Pol.—d, June 24, 1768, Versailles, Fr.), queen consort of King Louis XV of France (ruled 1715-74).  Although she had no direct influence on French politics, her Polish dynastic connections involved France in a European conflict that resulted in the eventual annexation of Lorraine by France.

Marie’s father, Stanislaw I of Poland in 1704.  After he was deposed in 1709, he settled with Marie at Wissembourg.  In the hope of quickly obtaining an heir to the French throne, Louise XV’s chief minister, the Duc de Bourbon, betrothed the 15-year-old king to Marie in 1725.

The marriage took place at Fontainebleau on September 5, Marie bore Louis 10 children between 1727 and 1737, but only one of her two sons—the dauphin Louis—survived infancy.  In 1733 France entered the War of the Polish Succession against Austria in support of Stanislaw’s claims to the Polish throne; Stanislaw was made duke of Lorraine byt the treaty that ended the conflict (1738).  Meanwhile, Louise XV, having lost interest in his queen, was lavishing his attentions on a succession of mistresses.  Marie’s marital unhappiness was intensified by the death of the Dauphin in 1765.  In accordance with the treaty of 1738, Lorraine became a part of France when her father died in the following year.  A. Leroy’s Marie Leczinska appeared in 1940.




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