Archive for October, 2010


Magnus Brostrup Landstad ~ Pastor

Landstad was born on October 7, 1802 at Måsøy, Norway and died on October 8, 1880 in Kristiania [Oslo].  Landstad was a pastor and poet who published the first collection of authentic Norwegian traditional ballads (1853).  His Norske folkeviser (Norwegian Folk Ballads0 dates back for its material to the Middle Ages and revolves around the adventures of trolls, heroes, knights, and gods; a supplement contains folk melodies collected by L.M. Linderman.  Though a later, more authoritative collection was published, Landstad’s book continued to be the most influential;  Henrik Ibsen drew many of the themes for his early dramas from the Landstad collection.

Landstad was later given responsibility for the preparation of a national hymnal.  He included some 50 of his own hymns and completed the editing in 1861.

Reference:  The New Encyclopedia Britannica (Micropaedia) 

Diosdado P. Macapagal – 5th President of the 3rd Republic of the Philippines (2 of 2)

Good morning everyone.  This is just the part 2 of my particle …

His suggested law as congressman was all about the welfare of the ordinary people.  One of these was the exportation of rice and corn.  Because of this, he was called the “Champion on the Mass.”

In 1958 he won as Vice President of the Philippines and on November 14, 1961 he won as President against former President Carlos P. Garcia.

As a President he gave emphasis on the problem in lack of employment and in the increase of production to help in the needs of many Pilipino.  Simple living in all of the government and the faithfulness in the duty was included in his bylaw.

He facilitated to reform the land to help the poor farmers.  He was given a hand by the experts in the law that will change the life of the small farmers.

Macapagal was the one sent Harry Stonehill and his accompanying person to go back to America.  Stonehill is an American millionaire who established many businesses in the Philippines.  He bribed some top officials in the government so he can do what ever he wants to have his business  always be successful in the country.  This became a big scandal that reached to the knowledge of Macapagal.  He did all the steps to end this scandal.

Macapagal also became the instrument to increase the relation of the Philippines in many countries.  He was also initiated to own Sabah from Malaysia.

Many of his detractor in the politics put Macapagal down. Different terrible issues were brought by the detractors which made in his clean name and services unpleasant.  It was not surprising anymore that he got lost when he ran again for President in November 1965.  Nevertheless, he was a gentleman to accept his failure.

When Former President Carlos P. Garcia, Macapagal replace him as the President of the Second Constitutional Convention.

President Diosdado Macapagal had two wives.  The first one was Purita dela Rosa who died early.  He had two children with Purita named Maria Cielo and Arturo.  The second one was Dr. Evangeline Macaraeg who had also given him two children named Maria Gloria and Diosdado Jr.

This was Macapagal aspiration in life:  “DO THE BEST THING YOU CAN DO AND GOD WILL DO ALL THE REST.”

Macapagal died last April 1997.



Diosdado P. Macapagal – 5th President of the 3rd Republic of the Philippines (1 of 2)

Favorite of the Mass

He became a President of the Republic of the Philippines  on December 30, 1961 until December 30, 1965.

If President Ramon Magsaysay so called “Favorite of the Mass”, President Diosdado Macapagal was called the “Champion of the Mass” because of his concern of the welfare of the poor Pilipino people.  He became the inspiration of every Pilipino to believe in their own self ability.  He proved that poverty is not a hindrance towards success.

Diosdado Macapagal was born in the province of San Nicolas, Lubao, Pampanga on September 28, 1910.  His parents are Urbano Macapagal and Romana Pangan.  His father was a farmer.  His mother, because of not attended in the school was a laundry woman as her occupation.

His family is poor but poverty  was not a hurdle for him to study and become the most influenced person in his country in his  time.    He studied his elementary in Lubao Elementary School where he was a valedictorian.  Salutatorian in high school at Mataas na Paaralan ng Pampanga.  Because of his goodness and brilliance he managed to go to college in Pamantasan ng Pilipinas.  He studied there the course in Associate in Arts and passed the Civil Service Examination.  His first job was an employee in the Department of Agriculture in 1932.

He started to study the law in the Philippine Law School in the University of Sto. Tomas.  This was where he finished his course.  He became a topnotcher in the Bar Exams in 1936. He was the only one who got this kind of recognition in the history of the university.  He continued his study and he acquired the following:  Master of Laws, Doctor of Laws and Doctor of Philosophy in Economics.  He had his own law office where he used all his knowledge.

Macapagal occupied the position in the government:  Chief of Legal Division in the Department of Foreign Affairs. Chief Negotiator in Turtle Island with Great Britain and Undersecretary in the Philippine Embassy in Washington D.C. that had the same position in the Department of Foreign Affairs.

His first encounter in the politics was when President Quirino encouraged him as representative in the 1st District of Pampanga in 1949.  He won again in 1953.  He was loved by the people of Pampanga not just because he was born there, but just because he was good and faithful in his duties. – New Encyclopedia Britannica

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Rodolfo Amadeo Lanciani ~ Archaeologist

He was born on January 1, 1847 and died on May 21, 1929 in Rome.  He was an Archaeologist, topographer, and authority on ancient Rome who discovered many antiquities at Rome, Tivoli, and Ostia and published a 1:1,000-scale map of classical, medieval, and modern Rome in Forma urbis Romae (1893-1901).  At 20 he assisted in the excavation of Emperor Trajan’s harbor at Porto, and his description (1868) remains authoritative.  Appointed director of excavations and professor of ancient topography at the University of Rome in 1878, he also lectured in the U.S. and England (1886-87).  His major works include Ancient Rome in the Light of Modern Discoveries (1888), Storia degli scavi de Roman (4 vol., 1902-12; “History of the Excavation of Rome”), and Wanderings in the Roman Campagna (1909).

Reference:  New Encylopedia Brittanica


Marie-Louise – Australian Princess

A Member of the House of Habsburg

Marie-Louise was born on December 12, 1791 in Vienna and Died December 17, 1847, Parma, Italy.  She was an Australian Princess who became the second wife of the French emperor Napoleon I and later duchess of Parma.

Marie-Louise , a member of the House of Habsburg, was the eldest daughter of the Holy Roman emperor Francis I and Maria Theresa of Naples-Sicily and niece of Mari-Antoinette, queen of France.  Klemens von Metternich, the Australian statesman, seems to have suggested her to Napoleon, who was looking for a wife with royal blood and had already decided to dissolve his childless marriage with the empress Josephine.  The match was arranged in February 1810.  Marie-Louise was married to Napoleon at Paris on April 1-2.  On March 20, 1811, she bore him the long-desired heir, the king of Rome and the future Napoleon II.

While Napoleon was campaigning in Russia, Marie-Louise served as regent for him in Paris.  After his first abdication (signed at Fontainebleau, April11, 0814), however, she returned to Vienna with her son.  The Treaty of Fontainebleau awarded her the duchies of Parma, Piacenza, and Guastalla with full sovereignty.  She became completely estranged from Napoleon when he threatened to abduct her forcibly to Elba, where he was in exile.

In September 1821, soon after Napoleon’s death that May, Marie-Louise married Adam Adalbert, Graf von Neipperg, having already borne him two children.  Together they governed the duchies more liberally than did most other princes in Italy, though some authorities suggest this resulted more from weakness of character than from policy.  After Neipperg’s death, however, circumstances forced her to countenance the reactionary administration of her prime minister.



Frederick William Lanchester ~ Automobile and Aeronautics Pioneer

He was born on October 23, 1868 in London and died on March 8, 1946 in Birmingham.  He was an automobile and aeronautics pioneer who built the first British automobile.  An architect’s son, he graduated from Harley University College (now the University of Southampton) and the National School of Science.

In 1891 Lanchester went to work for a gas-engine works in Birmingham, where he improved the products by designing a pendulum governor and a starter.  After five years he left to set up his own automobile-manufacturing firm, producing his first car, a one-cylinder, 5-horsepower model, in 1896.  A second model, with two cylinders, won the Gold Medal of the Royal Automobile Club, and a third led to backing for the Lanchester Engine Company, which produced several hundred cars over the next few years.  Among notable design features of his cars were a relative freedom from vibration, a graceful appearance with fewer of the knobs and levers that bristled in most driver’s compartments, and a luggage rack.

Lanchester’s  interest in aeronautics was first expressed in a paper he wrote in 1897, ahead of its time in appreciation of the principles of heavier-than-air flight.  In 1907-08 he published a two-volume work embodying distinctly advanced aerodynamic ideas.  As a member of the Advisory Committee on Aeronautics in 1909, and consultant to the Daimler Motor Company, Ltd., later, he also contributed to the development of operations research. – New Encylopedia Britannica



Claude Lancelot ~ Jansenist

He was born on 1615-16 in Paris and died on April 15, 1695 in Quimperle, France.  He was Jansenist who introduced a new method of teaching languages.  In 1637 he studied under Abbot Jean Du Vergier de Haurance, one of the fathers of Jansenism, the condemned doctrine advocating that there is no freedom of the will and that redemption is not universal.  Lancelot became one of the first hermits of Port Royal, the Jansenist centre near Versailles, Fr. From 1645/46 he taught in the Petites Ecoles, Les Granges, Fr., where the celebrated dramatist Jean Racine was among his pupils.  He wrote Nouvelle Methode pour apprendre in langue latine (1644) and Nouvelle Methode pour apprendre la langue grecque (1655), in which the rules of grammar are explained in French rhymes.  His famous Jardin des raciness grecques (1657); “Garden of Greek Roots”), an alphabetical vocabulary of Greek words with French translation in rhyming verse form, was used for two centuries.  His Nouvelle Methode pour apprendre facilement et en peu de temps la langue italienne, and Methode de plain-chant appeared in 1660.

During the persecution of Jansenism, the Petites Ecoles was dispersed, and Lancelot served as mediator between Port Royal and the pope (1644-69).  From 1699 to 1672 he tutored the young princes de Conti and completed his Memoires (published posthumously in 1738)/  je joined the Cistercian abbey of Saint Cyran but for being a Jansenist was exiled (1679/80 to Saint Croix Abbey, Quimperle.  L. Cognet’s Claude Lancelot appeared in 1950.

Reference:  New Encyclopedia Britannica


Marie-Antoinette – Queen Consort of King Louis XVII (2 of 2)

Queen Consort of King Louis XVII

Good morning everyone.   This is the second part of the article and it will be good if you read the first article before reading.  Let me continue the second part now ….

As a result, she became the main target of the popular agitators, who attributed to her the celebrated and callous remark concerning the poor:  “If they have no bread, let them eat cake!”  in October 1789 popular pressure compelled the royal family to return from Versailles, to Paris, where they became hostages of the Revolutionary movement.  Six months later Marie-Antoinette opened secret communication with the Comte de Mirabeau, a prominent member of the National  Assembly who hoped to restore the authority of the crown.  Nevertheless, her mistrust of Mirabeau prevented the King from following his advice.  After assistance to a group of émigrés (nobles in exile).  They arranged for the King and Queen to escape from Paris on the night of June 20, but Revolutionary forces apprehended the royal couple at Varennes (June 25) and escorted them back to Paris.

Marie-Antoinette then attempted to shore up the rapidly deteriorating position of the crown by opening secret negotiations with Antoine Barnave, leader of the constitutional monarchist faction in the Assembly.  Barnave persuaded the King to publicly accept the new constitution (September 1791); but the Queen undermined Barnave’s position by privately urging her brother, the Holy Roman emperor Leopold ll, to conduct a counter-revolutionary crusade against France.  Leopold avoided according to her demands.  After France declared war on Austria in April 1792, Marie-Antoinette’s continuing intrigues with the Austrians further enraged the French.  Popular hatred of the Queen provided impetus to the insurrection that overthrew the monarchy on Aug. 10, 1792.

Marie-Antoinette spent the remainder of her life in Parisian prisons.  Louis XVl was executed on orders from the National Convention in January 1793, and in August the Queen was put in solitary confinement in the Conciergerie.  Despite her sufferings, her courage remained unshaken.  She was brought before the Revolutionary tribunal on Oct. 14, 1793, and guillotined two days later.

Louis-Joseph, the first son of Louis XVl and Marie-Antoinette, died in June 1789; their second son, who became the titular king of France (as Louis XVII) upon Louis XVl’s execution, died in a Parisian prison in June 1795. – The New Encyclopedia Britannica



Marie-Antoinette – Queen Consort of King Louis XVII (1 of 2)

Queen Consort of King Louis XVII

Marie Antoinette was born on November 2, 1755 in Vienna and died on October 16, 1793 in Paris.  Queen consort of King Louis XVI of France (ruled 1774-93); by refusing to accept the constitutional restrictions imposed on her husband during the early years of the French Revolution, she contributed to the popular unrest that let to the overthrow of the monarchy in August 1792.

The 11th daughter of the Holy Roman emperor Francis I and Maria Theresa, Marie-Antoinette was married in 1770 to the dauphin Louis, grandson of France’s King Louis XV (ruled 1715-74).  The match was designed to strengthen France’s alliance with Austria, but the anti-Austrian prejudices current in France prevented Mari-Antoinette from winning acceptance in her adopted country.  The timid, uninspiring Louis proved to be an inattentive husband; and by the time he ascended the throne in 1774, Mari-Antoinette had withdrawn into the companionship of a small circle of frivolous court favorites.

At first the Queen was interested in politics only as a means of securing favors for her friends; the efforts she made to advance Austrian interests were blocked by the King and his ministers.  Her extravagant court expenditures contributed—although to a minor degree—to the huge debt incurred by the French state in the 1770s and 1780s, and her close associations with the more dissipated members of the court aristocracy prompted her enemies to circulate slanderous report of her alleged extramarital affairs.  These vilifications culminated in the Affair of the Diamond Necklace (1785-86), in which the Queen was unjustly accused of having formed an immoral relationship with a cardinal.  The scandal discredited the monarchy and encouraged the nobles to oppose vigorously (1787-88) all the financial reforms advocated by the King’s ministers.

During these crises, as in those to come, Marie-Antoinette proved to be stronger and more decisive than her husband.  By the time the Revolution broke out in 1789, she was exerting a powerful influence in the royal councils.  After a crowd stormed the Bastille on July 14, the Queen failed to convince Louis to take refuge with his army at Metz.  In August-September, however, she successfully prodded him to resist the attempts of the revolutionary National Assembly to abolish feudalism and restrict the royal prerogative. – The New Encyclopedia Britannica


August Baron Lambermont – Stateman


He was born on March 25, 1819, Dion-le-Val, now in Belgium and died on March 7, 1905, Brussels.  A stateman who in 1863 helped free Belgium’s maritime commerce by negotiating a settlement of the Scheldt Question, the dispute over Dutch control of the maritime commerce of Antwerp, Belgium’s main port.

After distinguished service in Spain for the army of Queen Isabella II during the First Carlist War (1833-39), Lambermont returned to Belgium in 1842 and entered the foreign affairs ministry, where he remained for 63 years.  Seeing the importance of developing Belgium’s trade, he transferred to the commercial branch of the foreign office; in 1856 he began to work on freeing Belgian commerce on the Scheldt River, Antwerp’s only outlet to the sea.  His efforts made possible the signing of an international convention at Brussels in July 1863 that ended the remaining Dutch tolls on Antwerp’s maritime trade.  For that achievement he was made a baron.  He was also prominent between 1874 and 1890 at several international conferences dealing with the laws and customs of war and with Central African affairs. 

Reference:  The New Encyclopedia Britannica

October 2010

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